Introduction to Philosophy, S04 PHI 100 @ Cortland College, FA 11


Notes: Lying in Politics ( Politics and Philosophy)

There are 3 different types of Human Behavior/ Activity




Also, There are 2 Realms that we must separate these behaviors


SOCIAL :  collaborative interaction between people: interpersonal




POLITICAL: Politics as a way of describing the breakdown of population: The Distribution of power



The Break Down

  1. LABOR:

The goal is the reproduction of human living as a species meaning: …sex!! /or Instinct behavior!!

Including:  Reproduction: Creation

Reproduction: to  re-create something

Example (eating)

Eating is reproduction because in nature there is a cycle and it is only concerned with reproduction at the individual level. When we eat, we absorbing energy and are attempting to  sustain out body and reproduce your life by eating and sleeping.

Labor includes Nature---à Man Made world

Labor-à Birth….reproduction / cycle OR …Work: activity to sustain life

In labor: we can perhaps run out of objects


It is the foundation of human life…you can not have human life without this

It  is what we have in common with animals


We go through the same thing in regards to the reproduction of life, Enduring labor.

As human move up the scale we remove ourselves from nature. This is good because if we stay in the cycle we do not have any freedom.

Labor has an end -à this end is reproduction of self and species

You are chained to the end and it is controlled by nature.

  • Arendt believes in human nature not human condition…we are conditioned by the world be live in…if the world changed than so do we.


Work is concerned with creating stability by creating an artifact (evidence) Arendt feels we have material progress…we are putting objects between us and nature.

We have to change material to change who we are

The purpose of work is to change or have a creation of and object…this is its END factor…Work is problematic.

In work the objects sits in the world: creation of object


-          When we act, we are producing something new in the world.

-          Action is not focused on an object

-          We can potentially be free by way of….. acting!!!

-          It takes place between people: because of the fact that when we are acting as a group,  the more people involved,  is equivalent to the most control.

-          Power:  is the ability to have the support of other people…you can control the consequence of action

-          We have no control of nature

-          We can only be free so far as we have disconnected ourselves from nature

-          We need to control the meaning of nature in order to have our freedom


The division of facts

Physical = nature/labor

Social- created through work

Mental= the world of the individual:

In order for something to have meaning it has to move on past the individual

When we envision something…. We have to move through the world…

The acts that have the most power are the ones that destroy in the physical world which is the hardest to control

Social is easier to change

Action: doesn’t have any meaning until it is in front of other people. An act is compelled by a thought .

Labor= foundation

Work--à builds on it

Action--à is the fruit

What is action??

Challenging social order to bring about change…it is the activity itself that has worth.

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