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This is the page where you should post all drafts for PHI 100 FA11 – Introduction to Philosophy.  If you’ve never posted or commented here before, be sure to watch the video below and read the commenting instructions at the top of the “Drafts” column to the left.

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Stephanie Pietrosanti Introduction to Philosophy 10/8/2011 #3             To answer the question, of which theory of identity Locke holds, is not a simple task.  First the three theories are the following sameness of substance which basically states that if someone’s body or soul remains the same unaltered and untouched then that person is in fact the same person I.E Theseus’s ship. Then there is the memory Criterion theory which basically states that if ones memories [...]

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Courtney Reed Draft Due: 10/13/11 Topic 3 PHI 100: Section 4   Have you ever wondered what identity actually is? Whether it’s the features we inherit, the values and beliefs we learn from our parents, or the characteristics we obtain through our environment over time? Everyone has their own opinion of what identity means. Some people believe they were born with their sense of self, and others that they created it over time. John Locke, an English philosopher, believes that person [...]

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Janessa Sabb First Draft Question #2 Logics Finesse John Locke’s Essay “concerning human understanding” offers a very thorough, logical philosophy of both mind and thought. His essay deals with essential questions concerning how we think and perceive things, it also talks about how we as human beings interconnect without each other through not only language, but reasoning, logic, and in some cases even religious practices. In Locke’s essay “concerning human understanding” [...]

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Does Berkeley succeed in refuting Locke's argument for a physical/material substance? To answer this question, we first need to have an idea about Locke's argument for a physical/material substance. Locke claims that we were born as a blank-slate and there are no innate ideas. The mind to him, is a white paper and it comes to be furnished with experience. He says that our observation may be employed either by external sensible objects or by the internal operations of our minds perceived and refl [...]

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Sean Bell John Locke was an enlightenment thinker who believed that all that a person knows comes from their experiences. Each individual is consistently adding information to their blank slate through conscious behaviors. John Locke coined one of the several theories of identity that have been developed over time. His premise has been seen as a memory theory because it follows the basic idea that consciousness over time is enough to constitute identity. Therefore, to sum up his theory of ide [...]

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Jenna Eason Locke holds the memory theory. He states that at any point in time if a person remembers something from a previous point in time, they are the same person. “This means that a person becomes the same person who has past experiences or undertook past actions when her consciousness includes them (Schechton on Locke, 11).   Locke is an advocate of sameness of consciousness over sameness of substance (Schechtman, 10). If the soul or idea of an object is consistent throughout time, [...]

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John Locke’s “Essay Concerning Human Understanding” is an explanation of what Locke thinks as the the source of the material substance. But before that a brief background information about Locke will be fundamental to understand him better. Locke was graduated from Oxford University from the philosophy department and he was close friends with Isaac Newton and Robert Boyle. He refused to be an academician and declined to stay in Oxford University because he thought this position would corru [...]

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John Locke’s theory of identity has been interpreted in many different ways over time. It is still a question of whether or not the “real” answer has come about, but then again, that is what makes up Philosophy. Four of the assumptions that have been made off of Locke’s theory of personal identity include; the character criterion, the memory criterion, the psychological criterion and the extension of consciousness criterion. These are all different ways that various people interpreted wh [...]

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Throughout our own lives we usually struggle to concretely define ourselves. What truly makes us ourselves? Is it our memory, experiences, or combinations of these? Philosophy seems equally concerned with this topic and how we as individuals define ourselves in terms of society and our past and present selves. One of the philosophers that considered this topic extensively was John Locke with his theory of memory, or psychological theory. To Locke there was no real set definition of “self, [...]

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Alexandra Ramirez Essay Choice One According to the dictionary, a question is an expression of inquiry that invites a reply. No figure in the history of ideas has been more associated with the question than Socrates, one of the founders of western philosophy (3). Socrates was an ancient philosopher born in 470 BC in Athens, Greece. Although his philosophy was only spoken and not written, the main records of Socrates come from his student, Plato. The Socratic Method is a way of finding trut [...]

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Alex Bateman                 Berkeley’s 3 Dialogues was a discussion between two characters, Philonous and Hylas.  These two characters had conflicting views on physical versus mental substance.  When reading the passage, one has to consider if Berkeley used the Socratic Method to express his views of mental substance.  To further understand the Socratic Method, one must discover how the method works, the features of the method, and why Socrates used this method.     [...]

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The Accepting of Berkeley’s Critique The basic build-up of our world is something that has been debated for a long time.  Some of the most prominent debates come from John Locke’s “An Essay Concerning Human Understanding”, and George Berkeley’s “Three Dialogues”.  In both philosophical writings, they explore the metaphysics of what substance is.  The main difference between the two philosophies was Locke’s earlier theory that our world is made up of material substance, or thi [...]

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Bryan Smith  Question #3 PHI100/Sect 4             People often wonder what it means to have an identity.  An identity can consist of many different things including values, beliefs, and other characteristics we develop over time through our environment and our family and friends.  Some people believe our identity is ever-changing, while others believe that it remains constant.  John Locke, an English philosopher during the 17th century believed that a person’s identity [...]

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Kenneth Sinclair PHI 100 John Locke’s Theory on Identity Based on philosophical analysis we have three theories of identity. They are sameness of substance, memory criterion and extended consciousness. John Locke’s critique on identity ties into the sameness of substance. This simply means what a person or an object is made up of. If you are the same man, you must have a physical being and if you are the same person, you must have a soul. All these key points collectively create identit [...]

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Cassandra Jones The account of personal identity as seen by John Locke has prompted such discussion of psychological theory in how identity is created. Though it is a obscure account to accurately define an relationship for personal identity. Lock's work of an Essay Concerning Human Understanding reaches out to identify that of the substance of the world, of personal identity. Locke follows the belief of existentialism in which physical vs. mental or substance and experience as it truly is [...]

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Does substance and experience co-exist with one another? Locke believed that we learned through observing and experience. Everything we do in life is based off the experiences we’ve already had in our lives, thus if we had a bad experience with a certain object, our mind would always remember the negativity of that object and only see it as part of an experience rather than by the object it is. The mind acts as its own; and we tend to put things together instead of seeing things for what they [...]

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Katelyn Hodges PHI 100-004 Rough Draft option 2 In the Three Dialogues, Berkeley attempts to disprove Locke’s argument towards physical substance. Berkeley makes use of the characters Hylas and Philonous to explain both his belief in mental substance and Locke’s position. Strategically, the name “Hylas” is actually defined by meaning matter and “Philonous” as ‘love of mind.’ These terms are the basis for each side’s belief in different substances explaining our existen [...]

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Jacquie Miller Brandon Davis-Shannon PHI S04 October 13,2011 Philosophy is the study of knowledge and thinking. John Locke was a famous philosopher who studied and came up with many of the theories that are still talked about today. Two of the theories that John Locke talked about were the memory theory and the “extension of consciousness” theory. John Locke identified more with the memory theory than the “extension of consciousness” theory. Who am I? That is the question [...]

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Hey group members,     Well…for starters this is the hardest paper that I have ever had to write in my life. So unfortunately this is pretty pitiful and I have sat here for hours to attempt to expand but my mind is drawing blanks. I have ideas that I want to explain but I cannot find a way to put it in words so that it is understandable. I wanted to at least post something for you to see so that you can gain an idea of where I am heading. I really hope to have much more by the end of thi [...]

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Brett Mahoney                                                                                                      Paper #1 Choice 2     I think therefore I am. Such a statement seems simple and practical yet presents a unique problem regarding inanimate objects. Can an object which possess no capacity for cognition truly exist? Is a material body void of the capacity for perception any less [...]

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Ashleigh Petillo First draft of Paper 1 #1 Is Berkeley’s 3 Dialogues a good example of the Socratic Method?              To first answer a question on whether a piece of work is a good example of something, you must identify what exactly that something is.  In this case, the work of George Berkeley is being questioned as a good example of the Socratic Method.  In order to determine this, the Socratic Method must be identified and explained.  The Socratic Method is a method [...]

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Daniel Sternkopf PHI 100 Professor Davis-Shannon Is Berkeley’s 3 Dialogues a good example of the Socratic Method?   The Socratic Method uses direct inquiry to challenge someone’s definition or claim of something with their consent. The usual outcome is demonstrating how little they know about the given topic. The way in which this typically turns out is when the question uses straight-forward, yes or no question to refute the other persons claim. After this happens the ot [...]

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Rob Von Bargen Paper #1 Theory of Identity It is very difficult to try to come with a definite way to come up with someone’s personal identity and be one hundred percent sure that that is the exact person you wish to identify. There have been countless arguments on the subject on personal identity and no one has really come up with an answer. John Locke came up with some theories of identity and he is a strong believer in the memory or psychological theory. He believes that to be the [...]

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            Group 2: Is Berkeley’s 3 Dialogues a Good Example of the Socratic Method? Mary Martinosky           In order for us to come to a conclusion as to whether or not Berkeley’s 3 Dialogues is a good example of the Socratic Method, we first must define what the Socratic Method is. Socrates was an Athenian who laid the early foundations for Western philosophical thought. His Socratic Method involved asking probing questions in a give- and- take dialogue that wo [...]

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Elise Thorsen PHI 100 Fall 2011 Paper #1 Topic #2 First Draft The metaphysics of existence have been pondered and debated by philosophers for centuries. Materialists like John Locke claim that physical substances (objects) underlie all of our experiences while idealists like George Berkeley, on the other hand, believe that there is no such thing as physical substance. Instead, idealists argue that it is mental substances (minds/ideas) that underlie experience. In Locke’s Essay Conc [...]

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British empiricists John Locke and George Berkeley, who wrote during the 17th and 18th centuries, both in their writings formed ideas on the knowledge of humans and their perception of the world around them. Both men through their works would become largely influential in regards to societal and philosophical thought through and up until the modern age. Locke makes his argument in his 1690; An Essay on Human Understanding while Berkeley attempts to refute Locke’s argument regarding physical/ma [...]

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    John Locke – Identity First Draft Who was John Locke? What is identity? What was John Locke’s account of the self? These are all important questions when looking at the three theories of identity. There is one of these three theories that is the preferable interpretation of Locke’s account. There were opposing interpretations of Locke’s views on identity. The information in Locke’s Essay Concerning Human Understanding, Schechtman’s Personal Identity and the Past, and [...]

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Locke and Berkeley’s Understanding of our Experiences             There has always been an age-old question as to if we truly experience an object for what it is or not. Throughout history many philosophers have attempted to answer this question, which led to many different theories about how an individual takes in the object that they are experiencing. John Locke was a philosopher who believed in physical/material substance. In opposition to Locke, there was George Berkeley who be [...]

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Julia Fleming PHI 100     “The unexamined life is not worth living.” This quote alone can summarize the life style and beliefs of Socrates.  Through direct questioning, Socrates dedicated every day of his life to finding the truth.  It was in his hit quest for truth that sentenced him to his very own death.   We recognize that method today as the Socratic Method.  In George Berkeley’s 3 Dialogues, the reader can see the Socratic Method practiced by the two charact [...]

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Shauna Baker 13 October 2011 Philosophy 100 Paper One Locke's Identity What makes a person maintain their identity? Or, put another way, how can one determine if a person is the same person at a later date, given that people change over time? What kind of changes must they undergo to be come a different person? And how many changes have to occur before they are no longer the same? These are questions that key philosophers such as John Locke have wrestled with over the centuries. Locke's use [...]

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Brett Mahoney                                                                                                      Paper #1 Choice 2 Final Draft                                                                                                10/27/11     I think therefore I am. Such a statement, as made [...]

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Elise Thorsen PHI 100 Fall 2011 Paper #1 Topic #2 Final Draft The metaphysics of existence have been pondered and debated by philosophers for centuries. Materialists like John Locke claim that physical substances (objects) underlie all of our experiences while idealists like George Berkeley, on the other hand, believe that there is no such thing as physical substance. Instead, idealists argue that it is mental substances (minds/ideas) that underlie experience. In Locke’s Essay Conc [...]

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What are objects to any human being? They are portrayed by the sensations and experiences people have with them. According to Locke, he believed that people did not distinguish between ideas that were brought on through sensation. We never stop to think about the real qualities of an object because our mind is independent and because of that, we tend to give objects qualities that may not always be true. The mind is the key that controls what we as humans perceive, because the mind gives us an i [...]

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Daniel Sternkopf Two of the latest topics we have discussed in class were utilitarianism and abortion. With this being said, it would be very interesting to use Mill’s views on utilitarianism to try and determine what his stance on abortion would be. To find this out, it will be imperative to show just exactly what John Stuart Mill means when he talks about Utilitarianism as well as defining the six different positions we constructed on abortion during class. With the 6 given stances on abo [...]

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Stephanie Pietrosanti Philosophy Paper topic #1 Draft #1   Based on the six different positions we discussed in class regarding the pro-life/ pro-choice continuum, I believe that John Stuart Mill’s Utilitarianism beliefs would lead him to support position #3, on the pro-life/ pro- choice continuum. It is important to define the six different positions before effectively proving why I believe John Stuart Mill would agree with position three. The six different positions are as f [...]

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Cassandra Jones Richards and Dworkin define their ideals and questions about the distribution and use of beautifying standards, is it acceptable and why do we beautify. The distinction between labor, work, and action is Arendt's distinction of human life on the destruction of creating reality of activity by dividing labor and work into the social realm and action into a political realm. To understand Richard’s and Dworkin’s view one must first understand Arendt's differentiation between l [...]

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There are some issues that we talk about of which our opinions agree on quite readily, and some which they don’t. Abortion seems to be in the latter of these categories. For years and years people have fought over whether or not abortion should be allowed and have come to no real conclusion on the fact. What we do know is that there are many different reasons that a person may feel the way they do about this topic, and position may vary greatly from strictly pro-choice to strictly pro-life.   [...]

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John Stuart Mill is an advocate of Utilitarianism. He describes Utilitarianism in terms of the Greatest Happiness Principle. This means creating the greatest amount of happiness of the greatest quality for the greatest amount of people. If something is considered to be morally right, it is the choice that has led to the largest increase in happiness for the most people possible. Mill’s view of Utilitarianism emphasizes the Greatest Happiness Principle by discussing that actions that create ple [...]

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Sean Bell Even though it is impossible to know for sure what stance someone of the past would hold regarding controversial debates, assumptions can be made through research. The late John Mill is a well known British Philosopher. Despite the fact that John Mill never wrote on abortion, his book entitled Utilitarianism provides some insight as to what his position would be. Regarding the abortion debate, Mill would support the combined position that believes abortion is immoral and unacceptabl [...]

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How do utilitarianism and an opposing view point like abortion connect to a degree of morality? It’s easy. The sole reason why abortion is considered an ongoing opposing view point is because people consider abortion morally right and wrong. The major debate is if killing a fetus is considered moral or immoral, and if it is actually killing a person. A further debate approaches the true definition of “person” and the role it plays in the debate, but a much more important topic of discussio [...]

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Katelyn Hodges PHI 100 Rough Draft option one Abortion has always been and will continue to be one of the most debatable topics in society. The fact that it is not only a moral issue but also involves a legal aspect allows for several different viewpoints on the topic. As each viewpoint holds justifications defending its position, John Stuart Mills would only agree with a certain stance on the continuum due to his Utilitarianism theory.  Utilitarianism follows the Greatest Happiness Pr [...]

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There are many controversial issues concerning abortion legally and morally and there are a variety of philosophers that hold different arguments about this issue. There are six different positions along the abortion spectrum with a variety of characteristics. Each one holds a specific belief on the morality and legality of abortion. John Stuart Mill’s Utilitarianism would support position number six on the abortion spectrum for a variety of reasons. His belief in making one’s self happily f [...]

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John Stuart Mill - Utilitarianism First Draft               Abortion is one of the most controversial topics discussed in today’s day and age.  There are so many different opinions thrown around.  Some people argue with the biblical moral or immoral aspect of it.  Others are not interested in the biblical definitions of right and wrong, these people are more interested in bodily integrity and personal freedoms.  One might wonder how famous philosophers from the past might we [...]

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Mike Feheley                                                                                                                         12/1/11 Rough Draft- Question #1 Mill’s Abortion Views             The abortion topic, in today’s society, is a highly discussed and hot topic among American politicians and civilians.  Many people have their own beliefs and op [...]

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Stephen Pooler Philosophy Paper #2 12/3/2011 Choice #2       Beauty is an important part of human relations, and the reproduction of the human species. Since the beginning of time people have been looking or ways to become more attractive to other genders. The more beautiful women were the ones that would be given to the men of power, and when they were married they were portrayed in the most beautiful garments. Beauty is an important part of the human s [...]

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Sierra Minogue November 29, 2011 PHI 100 Paper # 2 John Stuart Mill’s position on Abortion             Abortion is one of the most heavily debated topics in the United States today. Many people tend to think that the debate is two sided and a person can choose to be “pro-life” or “pro-choice” depending on their opinion of the morality of the action. However what most people fail to notice is that there can be many different positions concerning the issue of aborti [...]

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Courtney Reed John Stewart Mill believes the only way that we can figure out if something creates happiness is to try it. Unfortunately, regarding the pro-life/pro-choice continuum, we cannot try something then take back what we’ve done. Therefore, Mill’s idea of Utilitarianism best supports position four stating that abortion is immoral, but should be legal because having the power of choice gives us pleasure. Marquis and Thomson both have different views on abortion. Marquis believes [...]

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Alex Bateman Philosophy 100 Paper #2                 Abortion has always been a difficult topic to discuss.  People have such strong beliefs and opinions in the matter, which in turn, creates many complicated debates and discussions.  Ultimately, the abortion topic comes down to the moral aspect and the legality of abortion.  There is a difference between legality and morality.  By looking at the pro-life versus pro-choice continuum one will be able to understand the [...]

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Rob Von Bargen Mill’s View of Abortion A main goal of life is to be able to live the happiest, pain free life as possible. Every action you make is based on how to bring pleasure to yourself and to others that surround you. John Stuart Mill contributed greatly in trying to find a way to know what will produce the most happiness, and this was called Utilitarianism. Throughout your life you are faced with some difficult decision that many people have different opinions about and may not ag [...]

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Alexandra Ramirez Is the activity of beautifying an example of labor, Work, or Action? Does this answer support Richards’ or Dworkin’s position on beauty standards? By definition, beautifying means to improve one’s appearance. Through the readings of Andrea Dworkin and Janet Radcliffe Richards, a person can learn more about beauty standards and the act of beautifying. Although it can be seen in Labor and Work on some level, the act of beautifying is most decidedly an example of Actio [...]

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  As an individual, each person has their own stance on morality and what they consider to be right or wrong.  In society today, one of the biggest controversial debate is the topic of abortion.  Politically, a person can take two stances on abortion, pro-life or pro-choice.  Looking at this debate in a moral sense we can see that there are more then just these two positions on the topic.  There are different moral stances that a person can take that differentiate themselves in their [...]

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Jacquie Miller PHI 100 S04 11/29/11 Abortion is one of the most debated topics in the world, there is more to the life altering decision then just pro-life and pro-choice. On the abortion spectrum there are many different positions to be held and exceptions to be made. Philosopher Mill’s theory of Utilitarianism demonstrates that Mill would choose position number two, life and health on the abortion spectrum. There are some people who when it comes to the topic of abortion strictly [...]

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YASEMIN EGILMEZ PHI100 12.03.2011 ABORTION - PRO CHOICE Abortion is one of the most discussed issues for decades. Abortion’s status can differ by culture, religion or even politics. Moral or legal status of abortion still is not clear and there are two major views about these; pro-life and pro-choice. Who is right? Who is wrong? First we should summarize what each of two major thoughts’ ideas. Pro-life has the most radical view about abortion. Pro-life says abortion is totally [...]

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Khalia Brown PHI 100 Beautifying: In relation to Dworkin, Richards, and Arendt DRAFT              In life, there are things that we as human beings admire and value. When one admires something, they take pride and dignity in whatever it may be. They wish to share it with everyone around them as well as display how admirable this specific object may be. Although personal values may vary, there is one spectrum of values or admiration that is universal. This Spectrum refers to one [...]

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Matthew Bishop                                                                                                      12/1/11 Brandon David Shannon                                                                     Intro to Philosophy Abortion is considered to be one of the most controversial issues in the modern age with vary [...]

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Mary Martinosky PHI100 FA11 Prof. B. Shannon-Davis 12/04/2011                        Mill’s Utilitarianism Position on Support of Pro-Life or Pro-Choice           When you look at and try and understand the six different positions on the pro-life/pro-choice continuum, there are several positions I feel would support Mill’s Utilitarianism beliefs. In order to pick the most appropriate position that would support his belief, we must first understan [...]

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Janessa SabbPhil 100Question 1 The issue of abortions has always been a never ending continuum in the world. There are those that believe that abortion is murder and that no one should have the right to take the life of another. Then there is the other side of the spectrum, where one believes that a person has full and solemn rights to their own body, and that no one should have a position decisions that pertain to it. After considering both sides any rational person will agree that the quote [...]

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Elise Thorsen PHI 100 Paper #2 Topic #1 Throughout his major works and his many essays, John Stuart Mill deals with morality and ethical theory. In his book Utilitarianism, Mill discusses and defends utilitarianism in ethics. By looking at his views on utilitarianism, it is possible to attempt to determine the stance the philosopher would take on modern debates, like the death penalty or abortion, if he were still alive today. Taking Mill’s account of utilitarianism into consideration I w [...]

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Kubra Yelekoglu Philosophy Paper 2 12.05.11   What is beautifying?  Well, it is basically about attributing to your appearance by applying some tools or operations  to make yourself better looking. Although it is kind of making yourself artificial, I believe that, beauty is an important concept for everyone and since everybody's understanding of beauty differs from each other, individuals should be free to reach their beauty standards. So, is the activity of beautifying an exa [...]

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Stephanie Melendez Introduction to Philosophy PHI1OO FALL Paper #2   Mill's Perspective On Abortion                Abortion in fact opposes some of the utilitarianistic views proposed John Mill. However abortion itself has always been a strong argument, considering that abortion is a moral argument.  While others consider abortion to be morally right others consider it to be morally wrong. This has to do with the issue that some are pro-choice while many others are pro-life. [...]

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Ashleigh Petillo Phi 100 Paper 2   Mill’s Utilitarianism view on Abortion                 When discussing abortion and the legal argument of pro-life or pro-choice, there are not just two sides of the argument.  In fact, there are multiple dimensions within the abortion topic, and different moral reasons why someone would choose to support the legal argument of pro-life or pro-choice.  John Stewart Mill’s view on Utilitarianism will support one of the six moral di [...]

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Maria Medina Beauty has become such an important thing in society for many people. The things people do for beauty have become ridiculous and dangerous for the human body as we have learned ways to alter our body to make it more “beautiful”. But what is the definition of beauty? Everyone is unique in their own kind of way and we all bring our own beauty to the table, but society has its own way of thinking what is beautiful and what is not. People only want to fit in and be looked at as b [...]

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